Celeste Class 1
Celeste Homework Class 1 Lesson 1: Transitive and Intransitive verbs Transitive verbs take an object. Intransitive verbs don't. Examples: Transitive verbs Ramón come un taco. (Ramón eats what? A taco.) Yo compré una camisa. (I bought what? A shirt.) Intransitive verbs Nosotros pausamos por un momento. (We paused a moment... the verb takes no object.) Ellos duermen. (They sleep... the verb takes no object.) Most verbs allow for objects but do not always require one. In other words, many verb may be used as intransitive in one sentence, and as transitive in another. Examples: Voy a correr. (I'm going to run.) Voy a correr un maratón. (I'm going to run a marathon.) In general, intransitive verbs often involve weather terms, involuntary processes, states, bodily functions, motion, action processes, cognition, sensation, and emotion. Assignment 1 Choose 10 verbs that are new to you—ones you'd like to learn. If you can use the verb intransitively in a sentence, do so. If you can use the verb transitively in a sentence, do so. You will wind up with 10-20 sentences, depending on the nature of the verbs. PLEASE DOUBLE SPACE. Assignment 2 (This applies to every other week during the course.) Read a book (or an article or part of a longer book) in Spanish at whatever level you feel comfortable (I encourage you the explore the Spanish materials at the library!) and bring it to class to share with one or two other students.
Celeste Class 2
Lesson 1: La "a" Personal In Spanish, when a direct object is a person, it is correct to insert the preposition "a" before the person in the sentence. (This is also true for nonhuman creatures with whom the speaker has a relationship, like a pet: the speaker recognizes the creature's "personality.") Examples: Yo veo las rosas. Yo veo a Rosa. Lesson 2: After a preposition, most of the personal pronouns work, but not "yo" or "tú." a mí a ti a él a ella a usted a nosotros a vosotros a ellos a ellas a ustedes Here are some prepostions: para de para por sobre en desde con sin Note: In combination with the prepostion "con," "mí" and "ti" become "conmigo" and "contigo." Lesson 3: Direct Object pronouns Here are the direct object pronouns: me nos te lo los la las When used in conjunction with conjugated verbs, these pronouns are placed before the verb. Example: Simón lee el libro. ("El libro" is the direct object.) Simón lo lee. ("Lo" represents "el libro.") Assignments 1. Rewrite your 10 sentences from last week so that the direct object is replaced with a direct object pronoun. 2. Write 5 new sentences in which there is a stated direct object and it is human. 3. Rewrite these 5 sentences using the appropriate direct object pronoun.
Celeste Class 3
Lesson: Direct Object Pronouns After Nonconjugated Verbs You know that direct object pronouns come before conjugated verbs. Example: Yo leo el libro.=Yo lo leo. But with certain verb forms (not considered conjugations) these pronouns come afterward. A. Infinitives These pronouns get attached to the end of an infinitive. Example: Para comprar un carro, tengo que verlo. (In order to buy a car, I have to see it.) Notice that the infinitive (verlo) is part of a verbal expression (tener que + infinitive). The pronoun can actually go before the conjugated verb in the expression (tengo) as well as after the infinitive verb: two verb forms, two options. This does not change the meaning. Assignment 1: Write 3 examples like my example. Make sure to establish what your object is before you use the direct object pronouns. B. Affirmative Imperative (commands) These pronouns get attached to the end of positive commands. (They go before the verb with negative commands.) Example: Yo trabajé muy duro para preparale ese taco. Cómalo. (I worked hard to prepare you that taco. Eat it.) Note in the example above that the verb has an accent mark on it. That's because the addition of the pronoun also adds a syllable to the word, which changes the customary position of the stressed syllable. The accent mark indicates where the stress should be in the new word. Assignment 2: Write 3 examples like mine above. Pay attention to the accent marks. Here are 10 commands you can use: (I'm offering you "usted" commands because I think they're more essential.) coma escriba hable escuche mire diga escriba beba corte limpie C. Present Participles These pronouns get attached to the end of an present participles. Examples: 1. Juan: ¿Dónde está mi taco? Juana: El perro está comiéndolo. (Juan: Where's my taco. Juana: The dog's eating it.) 2. Ramón tiene nueva novia. Pasó toda la fiesta besándola. (Ramón has a new girlfriend. He spent the whole party kissing her.) In example 1, notice that the present participle (comiendo) is part of the compound tense called the "present progressive" (estar + present participle). This is how the present participle is most commonly used. With this compound tense, the pronoun can actually go before the conjugated verb in the expression (está) as well as after the present participle: two verb forms, two options. This does not change the meaning. In example 2, notice that the present participle is used independently. This is a lot less common. The present participle is NOT used as the subject of a sentence as it is in English. Assignment 3: Write 3 examples like my example 1. Make sure you establish what your object is before you use the pronoun. Assignment 4: Read a book.
Celeste Class 4
Assignment: 20 Clues (Based on 20 Questions) Think of something relatively common (a carrot, chocolate, a dog), then write statements about it in which the "something" is presented as the DIRECT OBJECT of the verb. Example: (lechuga) 1. La puedes comer. 2. Cuando la ves, ves el color verde. 3. Es posible meterla adentro de una bolsa. Notice that, in this case, I used "la" because "lechuga" is femenine. You too should use the appropriate form for your "something." BE CAREFUL not to treat your "something" as the subject of any of your sentences. Do not say, for example, "Es verde," because then you're not practicing the direct object pronouns you're supposed to be practicing. Also do not say, "La es verde." That is grammatically nonsensical. (Examples 2 and 3, above, for "lechuga," are ways of getting around this.) Try to give at least five clues for one "something." If you don't give 20 clues for your "something," pick an additional "something" (or two, or three) so that your total number of clues amounts roughly to 20. (For example, you could pick four "somethings" and for each you could give five clues.)
Celeste Class 5
Lesson 1: Indirect Object Pronouns An indirect object receives an action indirectly. Often it is the recipient of the direct object. Example: Yo doy el regalo a Pedro. In the above sentence, "el regalo" is the direct object. "Pedro" is the indirect object. Here are the indirect object pronouns: me nos te le les Like direct object pronouns, indirect object pronouns are place before a conjugated verb. Example: Yo le doy el regalo a Pedro. Notice that BOTH the pronoun ("le") and the person or thing to which it refers ("Pedro") are present in the sentence. This is standard practice when establishing the meaning of "le" or "les." It's not necessary with the other pronouns because their meaning is self evident. Lesson 2: Order of direct and indirect object pronouns indirect pronouns are used in a clause, the INDIRECT PRONOUN comes first. Example: Nosotros damos el regalo a ti. Nosotros te lo damos. When either LE or LES comes before LO, LA, LOS, or LAS, the indirect object pronoun (LE or LES) becomes SE. Example: Yo le doy el regalo a Pedro. Yo se lo doy. (SE = LE) So say you have a sentence like: Yo te doy el regalo. If you want to use the pronoun LO in subsequent sentences to represent EL REGALO in addition to using the pronoun TE, remember that the order of these pronouns is: INDIRECT, DIRECT (the abbreviation ID might help you remember this) Therefore, the sentence you get is: Yo te lo doy. NOTE: When LE or LES comes before LO, LA, LOS, or LAS, the former become SE. Example: Yo le doy el regalo a Roberto.=Yo se lo doy. Assignment 1.Write 10 sentences that have clearly stated direct and indirect objects and use the appropriate indirect object pronoun. Rwrite the sentences using direct and indirect object pronouns. (REMEMBER THE ORDER OF THESE PRONOUNS IS: INDIRECT, DIRECT) 2 Read a book or article and be prepared to talk about it in class with another student or two.
Celeste Class 6
Look again at the lesson from Celeste Class 3 and do the assignments all over again but this
time INCLUDING INDIRECT OBJECTS.
Celeste Class 7
Lesson 2: Gustar You probably know that GUSTAR is different from LIKE. In Spanish, it's not YOU that LIKES the a thing, it's A THING that PLEASES you. Example: Me gusta el chocolate. The subject is EL CHOCOLATE. For emphasis, it is also common to say: A mí me gusta el chocolate. A MÍ, A TI, and A NOSOTROS are all used in this way, for emphasis. But when the pronoun in question is LE or LES, it is necessary to specify to whom or to what you are referring (the first time you use LE or LES to refer to something or someone). Examples: A ellos les gusta el chocolate. A ti te gustan los caballos. Similar verbs: encantar, fascinar, molestar, importar Assignments 1. Read a book to share in class. 2. Write five creative sentences using GUSTAR and similar verbs, varying the subject and object and using the phrase A TI, A ELLA, etc. Example: A ti te gusta bañarte en chocolate. 3. Write a paragraph about an object in your life that you use, give to people, eat, send, throw, study, and/or dream about.
The idea is to establish what it is, then talk about it using the direct and indirect object pronouns we've been studying.
(NOTE: This is not a guessing game like the one from week 4.) PLEASE DOUBLE SPACE.
This page last updated 23 June 2010