Esmeralda Class 1
Lesson 1: The Preterite Tense The preterite is one of the principle past tenses in Spanish. Its uses: -To express that an action happened and was completed in the past. -To express that an action happened or began at a particular time in the past. (When we go over the IMPERFECT tense, you?ll see that the first use is relative.) Examples:
Ayer, hablé con dos estudiantes. (Yesterday, I spoke with two students.)
Hace tres años, viajé a Ecuador. (Three years ago, I traveled to Ecuador.)Lesson 2: First Conjugation Verbs in the Preterite (-AR Verbs) First conjugation preterite endings are as follows: -é -amos -aste- ó -aron
Example: HABLAR hablé hablamos hablaste habló hablaron Lesson 3: Second and Third Conjugation Verbs in the Preterite (-ER & -IR Verbs) Second and third conjugation preterite endings are the same: -í -imos -iste -i´o -ieron Examples: COMER comí comimos comiste comió comieron VIVIR viví vivimos viviste vivió vivieron Assignment 1 Practice the form of the preterite by writing out the full conjugation for three regular verbs from each group (3 -AR, 3 -ER, 3 -IR). Assignment 2 Practice these verbs and others ORALLY, conjugating them by memory, without
il you have them down. Assignment 3 Write a page, double spaced, which details a sequence of events from yesterday, or your last trip to Cancún or whatever.
All verbs should be in the preterite. Endeavor to use all regular verbs. It should be, "This happened, then this happened, then this happened?" Example: Volé a Cancún. Salí del avión. Recogí mi maleta. Etc. Assignment 4 As for every even-numbered class, read a children’s book and bring it to class.
Esmeralda Class 2
Lesson Imperfect tense The imperfect is used to express actions in the past from the perspective that they are not complete. This does not mean that, relative to the present they are not complete. Usually it is relative to other actions in the past. Principal uses: 1. As a context for other actions. Cuando yo caminaba al mercado, vi un pájaro. (When I was walking to the market, I saw a bird.) 2. To describe habitual or frequent actions in the past. Durante los años 90, yo comía mucho en el Restaurante Otto’s. (During the 90s, I ate at Otto’s Restaurant a lot.) All verbs (with the exception of 3) are regular in imperfect. Examples AR hablaba hablábamos hablabas hablaba hablaban ER comía comíamos comías comía comían IR vivía vivíamos
vivías vivía vivían
Assignment 1. In oral and written form, practice the above verbs and others in the imperfect until you can recite them from memory. 2. Write a page about things you used to do (habitual, frequent actions). Use the imperfect heavily.
Esmeralda Class 3
Lesson 1: Some irregular verbs in preterite tense SER/IR fui fuimos fuiste fue fueron PONER puse pusimos pusiste puso pusieron PODER pude pudimos pudiste pudo pudieron (PODER in the preterite means to accomplish something that you were making an effort at. In the negative, it means to fail.) SABER supe supimos supiste supo supieron (SABER in the preterite means to find out.) Assignment 1: Study and memorize these verb forms! Lesson 2: Preterite vs. Imperfect Tenses Both these tenses can describe the very same action, just from a different perspective. Preterite looks at the action as completed, overwith, very neat and tidy. Imperfect looks at the action as ongoing relative to other actions, not so neat or tidy. Examples: 1. Ayer manejé a Portland. (Simply, "I drove to Portland.") 2. Cuando manejaba a Portland, escuché la radio. (When I was driving to Portland, I listened to the radio In example 2, the action first action began before and ended after the second action, providing context. 3. Cuando escuchaba la radio, supe que David Bowie murió. (When I was listening to the radio, I found out that David Bowie died.) In example 3, the exact same action on the exact same day is expressed using imperfect because, relative to the third action (found out), the action began before and finished afterward. Assignment 2: Write out three sequences of three sentences similar to the model sequence above. Endeavor to incorporate the irregular verbs outlined above (SER, IR, PONER, PODER, SABER) in the preterite and use them for inspiration. Double space your writing please. Assignment 3: Read a book or article and bring it to class.
Esmeralda Class 4
Lesson: Irregular Verbs in the Imperfect There are only three: SER, IR, and VER SER era éramos
eras era eran IR iba íbamos ibas iba iban VER veía veíamos
Assignment: 1. Study and practive these verbs in both written and oral form. 2. Write another story (DOUBLE SPACED) in which you use these verbs in the imperfect and practice the interplay of the preterite and imperfect in other verbs. Again, write about an experience/adventure in nature, trying to use at least some of the vocabulary from the unit we just finished. Focus on the actions relating to some mishap you had, not on describing the fame or history of the setting. Example: Mi pasión era ir al desierto. Yo iba a cada oportunidad. Siempre cuando yo iba, llevaba amigos. Una vez llevé a mi abuela. Cuando manejábamos al desierto, mi abuela me preguntó si teníamos suficiente agua?
Esmeralda Class 5
Lesson 1: The irregular, but very important verb SER (to be) SER is used to identify and describe things. It is conjugated like this: yo soy (I am) tú eres (you are) (familiar) él es (he is) ella es (she is) usted es (you are) (formal) nosotros somos (we are) ellos son (they are) (masc.,mixed gender) ellas son (they are) (fem.) ustedes son (y’all are) (formal in Spain, universal in Am.)
SER is used to express something’s IDENTITY. (SER means "to be" in the sense of EXISTING and being identified as
USES of SER
1. Identifying something as a noun. (Esto es un libro.)
2. Characteristics (El gato es negro.)
3. Profession (Ramón es doctor.)
4. Religion (Nosotros somos budistas.)
5. Ideology (Ellos son socialistas.)
6. Nationality (Tú eres italiano.)
7. Geographic origin (Soy de Wenatchee.)
8. Material origin (La silla es de metal.)
9. When telling time. (¿Qué hora es? Son las ocho.)
Lesson 2: ESTAR ESTAR is used to express something’s CONDITION or LOCATION. (ESTAR means "to be" in the sense of being in a particular STATE.)It is conjugated like this: yo estoy (I am) tú estás (you are) (familiar) él está (he is) ella está (she is)1. Physical condition (Estoy enfermo.)
usted está (you are) (formal)
nosotros estamos (we are) ellos están (they are) (masc.,mixed gender)
ellas están (they are) (fem.)
ustedes están (y’all are) (formal in Spain, universal in América.)
2. Mental condition (Ramón está aburrido.)
3. Emotional condition (Nosotros estamos tristes.)
4. Location (¿Dónde está Waldo? Waldo está en Puyallup.)
5. Temperature of things (La sopa está fría.)
Some comparisons of SER & ESTAR
¿Cómo es Roberto?
(This means "What is Roberto like?" It requests a description of his identity and characteristics.)
La casa es bonita.
(This means "The house is pretty." a characteristic)
Simón es aburrido.
("Simón is boring." a charactersitic)
1. Read a book or article and bring it to share and discuss.
2. Write one original example of your own for each use of each verb (SER: 9, ESTAR: 5) for a total of 14 sentences.
Esmeralda Class 6
esson: The Present Progressive Tense
The Present Progressivie is yet another use of ESTAR and is used to express an action that is actually in
process. It a compound tense in which ESTAR serves as an auxiliary verb to another verb in its present
participle (or gerund) form.
El profesor está explicando. (The professor is explaining.)
Los estudiantes están escribiendo. (The students are writing.)
Note that ESTAR is conjugated as you’d expected based on the subject.
Also note the endings of the present participles:
-ANDO (as in "explicando") is used with -AR verbs.
-IENDO (as in "escribiendo") is used with -ER and -IR verbs.
(There are some verbs with irregular present participles: the verb IR itself—its present participle is
YENDO—and those that end in -EER and -UIR. Their present participles end in -YENDO, as in
Lesson 2: The Past Progressive Tense By putting ESTAR in the IMPERFECT, you can express that an action WAS HAPPENING. Example: Yo estaba nadando. (I was swimming.) Nosotros estábamos viendo una película. (We were watching a movie.) Note: The simple imperfect itself expresses these things most of the time. Assignment Write about an experience you had at a restaurant. Use SER, ESTAR, and the past progressive. -How was the food? What was the food like? -What was the ambience like? Describe the restaurant. -Where were things? Describe or indicate relative positions. -What was happening? What were you and others doing? Example: Fui al Restaurante La Flor de Weehawken. Las paredes eran verdes y las sillas eran duras. La sopa de lentejas estaba fría y yo estaba enojado.
Mientrastanto, mi esposa estaba comiendo emociadamente sus tacos de atún.
Esmeralda Class 7
Intermediate Homework Week 7 Write a poem that is inspired by everything we’ve studied during this course: earth science vocab, preterite and imperfect, ser and estar, food. It should rhyme.
This page last updated 3 May 2017